Occupation-based gameplay and long-term participant retention : starcitizen

tl;dr – Absent conventional loot and degree grinds, we want a substitute psychological driver for long-term participant retention – a brand new paradigm the place gamers are motivated by their in-game experiences, not expertise factors. Investing in profession-based gameplay appears a sensible method to ship these new-paradigm experiences. So, we focus on immersion, “straightforward to be taught, troublesome to grasp,” and novel experiences on this context.

An evaluation of mining, SC’s most developed occupation, reveals it nonetheless appears like an old-paradigm means-to-an-end expertise. So, I suggest a brand new design method using a toolbox of pseudo-realistic ideas.

To display this new method in motion, we retool the present mining mechanic to ship a new-paradigm entry-level mining expertise. The MOLE is then reworked to increase mining past entry-level and ship a strong multiplayer expertise that checks all our packing containers.

Alongside gameplay, content material is a big consider our player-experiences equation, so we conclude by analyzing the danger of overexposing attention-grabbing content material.


The psychology behind loot and degree grinds and their ever-shifting goalposts are important drivers of long-term participant retention in conventional MMOs. SC discards this previous paradigm, so what’s our new paradigm?

It should have been 2013 or ’14 once I heard Chris Roberts handle the dearth of loot and degree grinds. Paraphrasing: gamers would log in for the in-game experiences, not expertise factors. Because the saying goes, it is the journey, not the vacation spot.

You’ll be able to hear this shift echoed by backers once they discuss of their plans for in-game ship purchases. Their pleasure is usually related extra with the gameplay they anticipate the brand new ship will open than with the ship as an entity. Psychologically, ships are considered extra as a beginning line than a end line. Distinction with conventional MMOs, the place a participant’s acquisition of the best-in-slot gear typically marks the start of a hiatus, ready for the subsequent enlargement pack.

It appears affordable a lot of a participant’s journey might be spent partaking in actions associated to in-game professions. Consequently, it is a wise place to construct important worth into participant experiences.

IAE 2950 allowed my org to expertise each platform at the moment obtainable for SC’s most-developed occupation, mining. So, reasonably than expressing my concepts solely generally phrases, I’ll use mining for example them in motion.

What We Need From A Occupation

Sure, we wish a possibility to make a revenue and all that, however I am particularly addressing what we wish from the participant expertise whereas engaged in profession-based actions.

Simple to be taught, troublesome to grasp” – That is considered one of CIG’s acknowledged targets. Given there are not any RPG character stats in Star Citizen, mastery would be the product of participant growth. Implicit in this isn’t each participant can have the aptitude to grasp each sport mechanic. My reflexes aren’t as sharp as they had been in my twenties, and that may restrict the extent of mastery I can attain in FPS fight. Our aim ought to be to include a wide range of aptitudes and ability units into our profession-based sport mechanics.

Immersion – Usually used to explain the sensation you are in an actual world (even when it would not parallel our actual world). Within the new paradigm, it is not sufficient for the world to really feel actual. Gameplay ought to depart the participant feeling their actions on the earth are real.

Novel experiences – Most professions can have quite a lot of routine work, however, occasionally, a rare ingredient ought to seem within the course of. These will be uncommon occurrences associated to the occupation or one thing from outdoors injected into the second.

The Present State Of Mining

The mining course of’ framework is intelligent, however a number of facets of its implementation depart it feeling like an old-paradigm design.

It is a generic, gamified course of. If an analogous mechanic had are available in for hacking as a substitute of mining, no one would have blinked. Your hacking software program can masks an information stream, and you must handle the info circulation charge. Hold the speed excessive sufficient the obtain finishes earlier than the masking software program completes its cycle however low sufficient the hack stays hidden from intrusion detection techniques.

So, whereas dumping power right into a rock until it fractures can plausibly be described as mining, there’s little in regards to the gameplay that feels distinctively like mining. Alternatively, its acquainted and gamified really feel aren’t unhealthy qualities to have in an entry-level mechanic.

Anticipation for the MOLE’s multi-crew gameplay initially had my workforce excited, however the expertise shortly grew sedate. Giant asteroids require a number of individuals to fracture, however one org member likened the extent of teamwork and coordination required to “one individual screwing in a lightweight bulb whereas two individuals maintain the ladder.” Extra and greater lasers did little to advance the expertise.

The problem of high-end ores manifests as better instability and narrower optimum zones. Gamers overcome this problem in typical online game trend: participant reflexes, gear stats, and consumables. Mining lasers are your swords providing a myriad of attributes (whether or not they make sense or not), and mining consumables are your potions providing buffs/debuffs for each event. This quintessential online game method to overcoming challenges means essentially the most difficult rocks ship the least immersive expertise.

Whereas mining is completed very effectively, it nonetheless appears like gameplay for the previous paradigm; it’s a way to an finish. For the brand new paradigm to succeed, I consider extra emphasis must be positioned on the means and the expertise it delivers. So, what can we do to retool the method?

A Toolbox For Constructing In The New Paradigm

I might wish to see CIG assemble a toolbox full of generalized, widely-applicable but pretty fundamental STEM and sci-fi-stylized pseudo-STEM rules, instruments, and methods. The contents of this toolbox turn into constructing blocks included into gameplay challenges and their options.

By establishing a set of instruments, their properties, and thematic concepts relating to how every might be used, we go a great distance towards serving to create a uniform really feel throughout sport techniques in a multi-designer atmosphere. It additionally will get us fascinated with how the in-game science and engineer/mechanic roles (equivalent to on an Endeavor) might be used to change or tune sport parts constructed with these instruments.

The method is summary, so let’s create a pair examples and apply them to mining. (Once more, I am not trying to current a fleshed-out redesign of mining. I am choosing facets of the present system to distinction with alternate options constructed utilizing the method I am advocating.)

Software #1 – waves and curves

Waves and curves have an abundance of properties (e.g., wave velocity, amplitude, interval, frequency, wavelength, the world beneath the curve, most/minimal slope, and many others.) that designers can use to tell gameplay and place contextual constraints on.

They’ve a variety of potential purposes. For instance, gasoline effectivity curves for engines, decision throughout XYZ spectrum for long-range sensors, emissions vs. output (i.e., stealth) for ship parts, and so forth…

So, how can we use curves to retool our mining course of?

Why are gamers allowed to have an effect on the rock’s optimum power window measurement? In any case, it’s a property of the rock. To offer a extra practical expertise, let’s as a substitute create mechanisms to enhance the miner’s skill to remain inside the optimum window.

For instance, at the moment, we’ve got no management over how delicate the mining laser is to person enter. So, let’s create engineering console performance to offer one thing analogous to a joystick sensitivity curve.

By incorporating an engineering constraint, we are able to add some problem and create a dimension for participant ability development. Limiting the utmost space obtainable beneath the curve would stop gamers from making a “responsive-everywhere” curve. So, figuring out the place to speculate their budgeted space requires a miner to have a tough concept of the vary of energy the mining laser might be outputting to carry the rock in its optimum window.

r/starcitizen - Profession-based gameplay and long-term player retention

Mining Laser Sensitivity Curve

A novice miner would possibly discover this vary by experimentation. By charging the rock to its optimum window then trying to carry it there for just a few seconds they will configure their curve based mostly on the laser energy ranges noticed throughout the trial.

A miner develops experience by correlating these observations with the related information (i.e., distance and the rock properties revealed by the scanner). So, they will start to estimate the vary for future rocks based mostly on scanner data alone. For these prepared to just accept a trade-off, a pc blade may help (or even perhaps automate?) the method.

It is a resolution that replaces a gamey buff/debuff method in favor of a real-world engineering really feel – one many joystick homeowners are already aware of. It advantages from creating experience, and it creates gameplay for our mechanic function – tinkering with the mining laser, trying to extend the world obtainable beneath the curve.

Software #2 – consumable compounds

Properties obtainable to designers embody reactivity, response capability, response charge, and many others.

Potential purposes: solvents, fertilizers, refining (e.g., making amalgams), CO₂ scrubbers for all times assist, and many others…

Moderately than giving gamers a magic potion to debuff instability, thereby lowering the chance of overcharge, let’s settle for overcharge will occur and provides miners a mechanism to manage – by reversing the mining laser’s polarity a miner can draw down the overcharge. It is a sci-fi trope we are able to make use of to shunt power out of the overcharge bar and again into the ship.

The reclaimed power is directed into the ship’s cooling system, however there’s a further emergency safeguard: a consumable compound constructed into the mining equipment. The safeguard is engaged when the power exceeds some configurable threshold. It is a quantity of compound designed to dissipate the surplus power by way of sublimation (state transition from strong to gasoline) then expelling the gasoline.

In-game scientists may work to enhance the response capability (i.e., how a lot power is consumed within the state change) (J/kg) and the response charge (kg/s). Reactivity may additionally are available in to play. Now that gasoline clouds are within the sport, maybe some compounds react badly when expelled into particular environments.

Toolbox Wrap-up

We’ve taken two potential instruments from our toolbox, curves and consumable compounds, and used them to retool facets of the present mining course of.

By using this design method, we see how even an entry-level mining mechanic can ship an expertise that feels prefer it was developed by in-’verse mining engineers, not a online game designer. It informs and generates content material for the in-game science and engineer/mechanic roles, and it affords some restricted participant ability development that isn’t solely reflex-based.

An added advantage of designing with this STEM-based method is gameplay trade-offs are inclined to really feel practical. On this instance, when confronted with a very difficult however useful rock, a miner has the choice of turning off non-essential techniques, together with engines and shields, to extend obtainable cooling capability.

Designing A MOLE I Can Dig

Now that we’ve familiarized ourselves with the brand new design method by retooling an current mechanic, let’s strive our hand at designing from scratch a brand new, strong multiplayer expertise for the MOLE.

Once more, my function is to display the appliance of my STEM-based design method, to not really re-design mining. Particulars like ship configuration and loadout aren’t related for my functions. However, for ease in evaluating and contrasting, I might be shoehorning my resolution into the present mining paradigm – some asteroids are too massive for a Prospector to deal with.

In my resolution, these too-large asteroids are assemblages of smaller fragments that, as soon as separated, will be damaged down and harvested by the present dump-energy-into-the-rock course of. The inner surfaces the place an asteroid’s constituent fragments be a part of are “fracture surfaces” (or “interfaces”). How caught collectively the fragments are, the naturally-occurring adhesion, varies throughout every interface.

Mining begins by scanning the asteroid whereas making use of stress with tractor beams. A holographic interface reveals the interior construction (i.e., the fracture surfaces) and a map of the measured adhesion throughout every interface.

Asteroids are damaged aside by detonating explosive mining prices on these fracture surfaces. A clear, environment friendly break is achieved by inserting a right-sized cost the place adhesion is best and, transferring away, adhesion decreases at roughly the identical charge the power from the explosion dissipates.

So, we want a course of for miners to interrupt down native adhesion on an interface and remodel the naturally-occurring adhesion map to the specified adhesion gradient. Lithotripsy, the process medical doctors use to interrupt up kidney stones with sound waves, is the inspiration for my concept. We may clarify it as 30th-century developments in Brillouin scattering or one thing.

r/starcitizen - Profession-based gameplay and long-term player retention

Adhesion Maps

Functionally, it operates just like the Erase Software present in superior paint applications equivalent to Photoshop and GIMP. The miner “paints” on a fracture floor the place they wish to scale back adhesion. Typical of paint applications, motion of the comb is proscribed to a 2-D aircraft. However fracture surfaces are curved 3-D surfaces, so our miner wants a companion.

The companion’s function is to tilt the portray aircraft alongside the x- and y- axes (utilizing the comb location because the origin). By working in live performance, the 2 miners can maneuver the comb alongside a 3-D floor.

We are able to make this second function extra partaking by including its personal dynamic ingredient. We outline the aircraft’s equilibrium orientation to be when it lies perpendicular to a line from the asteroid’s middle. Holding the aircraft in some other orientation requires the miner to use a drive proportional to the offset from the perpendicular. (Think about carrying a sheet of plywood in a robust wind. The extra the face is became the wind, the extra effort is required to carry it there.) Whereas the function will be carried out utilizing a keyboard and mouse, a joystick and throttle would offer an distinctive, high-fidelity expertise.

r/starcitizen - Profession-based gameplay and long-term player retention

Disrupting Adhesion On A Fracture Floor

When the miners are happy with their adhesion gradients, autonomous disposable drones ship the mining prices by drilling to the designated detonation areas. The explosives are set off remotely, however what occurs after the increase?

We want attention-grabbing methods for achievement and less-than-success to manifest. Presently, objects in area will shortly sluggish to a cease on their very own. (I am undecided the way it’s applied, so I will guess it is a synthetic drag coefficient.) When splitting these bigger asteroids, the separated fragments ought to initially have a low coefficient that ramps up over time. So, there’s the potential for them to actually transfer earlier than finally stopping.

If the explosion is not enough to beat adhesion throughout all of the related interfaces, the fragments do not separate. Within the cleanest consequence, minimal momentum is imparted to the separated fragments, making them straightforward to corral with tractor beams. Too massive a cost may impart appreciable momentum to the fragments, making a hazard for the ship. A much-too-large cost may moreover pulverize parts of the rock, lowering the recoverable mass of the fragments.

On this course of, participant ability development encompasses two key areas: mining cost measurement and placement, and the breaking down of adhesion on a fracture floor.

Mining cost measurement and placement – By inserting the mining cost inside to a fracture floor, a novice miner can flip every floor right into a self-contained puzzle. An skilled miner could select to resolve a extra advanced puzzle however with better effectivity. Inserting a mining cost at a junction the place two or extra fracture surfaces meet, the power from a single explosive can be utilized to separate a couple of interface.

A novice miner could select to spend extra time to scale back adhesion throughout the board, permitting the usage of a smaller mining cost. An skilled could make solely the minimally-necessary modifications to adhesion, comfy of their use of bigger explosives.

Breaking down adhesion – A novice crew’s course of could also be characterised by a “transfer then lower – transfer then lower” workflow and contain the revisiting of spots for touch-ups. An skilled crew can have alternatives to chop on the transfer. and the necessity for touch-ups might be much less frequent.

Assessing The New Design

So, how have we finished? Our new course of creates two very completely different however complementary roles that profit from good communication and workforce chemistry. It delivers a distinctively space-age-mining really feel. And participant development includes the event of experience and even incorporates a decidedly inventive ability set.

The system facilitates a substantial number of challenges. Asteroids differ in how their fragments are assembled and the naturally-occurring distribution of adhesion throughout all of the fracture surfaces.

We may additional enhance the number of experiences by borrowing from real-world ideas like pyrometamorphism and shock metamorphism to create eventualities the place a clear, environment friendly break is not at all times essentially the most fascinating end result.

There’s additionally ample alternative for pc blades to help gamers in creating their expertise. For instance, based mostly on mining cost measurement and placement, a blade may show an estimated goal adhesion worth for the comb’s present location.

From Idea To Implementation

Having established our framework for extending the mining course of, let’s once more discover how the toolbox can be utilized whereas designing one facet of implementation.

We’ll introduce a brand new wave-ish curve to handle our brush. The amplitude corresponds to the diploma to which adhesion is disrupted – brush “drive” in GIMP – and the variety of durations dictates how far into the asteroid the impact can penetrate. We create engineering console performance permitting the miner to form the curve over every constructive [y>0] half interval. In impact, we’re giving gamers the flexibility to create a set of customized brush “presets” beneath the guise of engineering gameplay.

r/starcitizen - Profession-based gameplay and long-term player retention

Brush Presets

Our in-game engineer/mechanic roles may tinker with the Brillouin emitter, trying to extend the wavelength, thus enabling bigger brush sizes. Or enhance the variety of durations, offering extra presets and permitting deeper impact penetration.

We noticed beforehand how our STEM-based method tends to end in wise gameplay trade-offs. It may additionally naturally result in further gameplay alternatives based mostly on what’s already been designed.

For instance, if we wish to add an lively function in mining for our pilot, as designed, our course of has two individuals concurrently managing facets of the identical brush. We may create gameplay round sustaining the coherence of those brush controls. If we incorporate the depth of the comb and the composition of the intervening fragments into this gameplay, we not solely give pilots one thing to do, it includes some extent of piloting ability.

Lastly, let’s create an instance of a novel expertise that naturally matches into our design. Think about you discover a delicate linear anomaly within the adhesion map of one of many fracture surfaces. What may clarify it? Maybe some ice miners stumbled upon a frighteningly harmful substance – a protomolecule maybe? Afraid of it but in addition unwilling to destroy it, they determine to stash it in an asteroid. They changed the explosives in a mining cost drone, and the anomaly was created because it drilled its method to its hiding place.

Content material – A Meta-Stage Consideration

We have finished our greatest to make the profession-based mechanics immersive and entertaining, however that is just one aspect of the player-experiences equation. We have to discuss in regards to the different aspect – content material.

In a paradigm the place participant experiences should carry a considerable load, I consider overexposure of the “attention-grabbing” content material is an actual threat. With overexposure, attention-grabbing turns into extraordinary.

Do you continue to sit up for Discovery Channel’s Shark Week? The early success of Shark Week, and the shark-related programming that success spawned, has made shark “content material” extraordinary. Overexposed, Shark Week’s programming has gone from factual to farcical in a (failed) try and recapture the eye of viewers.

So, paradoxically, I feel SC will maintain gamers’ consideration longer if the very best content material is doled out very sparingly. The anticipation of encountering this content material can drive individuals ahead. As quickly because the content material turns into too acquainted, the anticipation goes away. So, gamers ought to usually be partaking with pretty mundane content material.

On its face, I concede this will sound like a foul concept. However should you agree with my assertion that overexposure causes attention-grabbing content material to turn into extraordinary, the choice means all of your content material, whether or not it began attention-grabbing or not, shortly turns into mundane.

Let’s look to salvaging for an instance. Actually attention-grabbing wrecks (e.g., these with unique tales or mysteries behind them) ought to be few and much between. Even modestly attention-grabbing wrecks, these with a number of salvage-worthy parts, ought to be doled out sparingly.

A lot of the time, I feel salvagers ought to be working to pay the payments till they will land the subsequent windfall. Not fairly feast-or-famine but in addition not common, dependable progress. Seeing constant progress will immediate the participant to ask, “progress towards what?” As an alternative, we should always depart them anxiously anticipating that subsequent distinctive expertise.

Consider mundane content material would not essentially condemn gamers to boredom. We mustn’t neglect we’re investing closely on the opposite aspect of the equation. Our gameplay mechanics are designed to ship superior moment-to-moment experiences even when utilized to more-mundane content material. However that does not imply we won’t add one thing to the content material aspect to assist steadiness the equation.

Ceaselessly, the sport engine can decide if a participant’s been consuming mundane content material. Many professions work based mostly on contracts or missions, and they are often categorized. I am assured we are able to discover methods to infer this data for people who do not.

When engaged in mundane content material, we are able to enhance the likelihood of a contextually-appropriate, not-so-novel expertise triggering. These aren’t makes an attempt to inject an adrenaline rush or derail the participant’s actions; they’re easy occasions whose function is to interrupt up the routine. Frequent sufficient to serve their function; not so frequent they turn into a nuisance.

Examples may embody something from a stray, garbled radio sign to a defective gear warning mild or perhaps a mini-encounter. For our salvager, a contextually-appropriate instance of the latter could be the arrival of an NPC competitor who affords a fast dialog earlier than transferring on.

Since having gamers devour extra mundane content material is integral to our skilled ecosystem, we are able to leverage these not-so-novel experiences to assist develop that ecosystem. Our instance encounter is a chance for the participant to additional develop their skilled status with an NPC peer that might result in attention-grabbing content material down the highway.

Wrapping Up

Star Citizen is attempting to be quite a lot of issues to lots of people. As soon as an area sim, Chris now calls it a “universe sim.” However not each facet of gameplay, not each cool piece of underlying tech, possesses the identical capability to drive long-term participant retention. We have to prioritize these that may, and we have to ship new-paradigm caliber experiences.

(Cross-posted to Spectrum right here. Please updoot and remark.)

Edit: added cross-post hyperlink to Spectrum

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