Transportation Deployment Casebook/2018/Digital Toll Assortment System

The merely description of Digital Toll Assortment system[edit]

the technological characters[edit]

The Digital Toll Assortment (ETC) system is a form of know-how to toll within the HOV lanes and completely different highways however not require the automobile to cease. The particular ETC street is just used for these drivers whose automobiles has car mounted gadgets on them. The gadgets are often known as transponder facility. Usually, the motive force must create an account to load his cash into his account and each time he passes by the ETC street, the sensors on the ETC street can detect the automobile with the transponder and cost by reducing the saved cash within the driver’s account. The transponder facility which might create ratio waves is situated on the automobile’s windshield and the wave will be acknowledged by the sensors. The obtained wave will be transferred into the data on the web and the amount of cash can be deducted by the related web site with the cooperation of banks.

the benefits and the principle market[edit]

The ETC system has many benefits evaluating different tolling system. First, ETC particular lane don’t want the electrical tolling sales space, which implies can keep away from the noise made and the consumption of electrical energy when the gate opens and closes. Second, with ETC system, the federal government don’t want individuals to take administration of tolling, which might cut back the price of human useful resource. Third, a very powerful level is the ETC system allow drivers to pay cash by the car mounted gadgets on the web with out stopping their automobiles. This improves the effectivity and reduces the ready time when the purchasers are working and save the method of discovering money for tolling. Because of this, ETC particular manner will be helpful to sort out the congestion. So ETC system can keep away from the site visitors queue in congested roads. This know-how is extensively utilized in busy highways, toll roads, HOV lanes, tunnel and bridges surroundings to save lots of individuals’s time. [1]

the Scene Earlier than the Introduction of ETC system[edit]

money lanes[edit]

Earlier than the electrical tolling assortment know-how, authorities want the money lanes to take cost. The federal government place some electrical tolling cubicles with a gate to cease automobiles, the place there may be individuals working inside them. When drivers passing by the cubicles, he must cease the automobile and discover money and provides to the purchasers. After the affirmation of purchasers, the gate can be opened and drivers can get by it.

open tolling lane[edit]

This lane is just like the ETC particular lane in some methods. This sort of tolling lane may cashless toll. However the automobiles passing by should decelerate to ensure the gadgets on the automobile be learn, which can additionally result in the congestion in some conditions.

the method of evolving[edit]

Because the site visitors capability of the ETC particular street is the 4 instances of the site visitors capability of regular tolling lane. Moreover, with out the development of the cubicles, the ETC lane may also help save the site visitors departments’ funding, truly can save 40% building payment. As for the working value, the price for sustaining and administration for ETC particular lanes is way decrease than that of regular lanes. So the federal government want the ETC system to economize. Drivers want this know-how as nicely. With the widespread of ETC system, the drivers solely want to enroll am account and lower your expenses inside it and needn’t fear concerning the money drawback when tolling and the congestion. ETC system is adopted by each drivers and authorities and steadily replaces the normal tolling strategies.

The Invention of the ETC System[edit]

part[edit]

The ETC system has two primary elements: the RSU and OBU. The RSU is the street aspect items, just like the sensors situated within the ETC lanes. This unit is hung straight on the doorway of the ETC street, 5.5 meters over the bottom. And the OBU is the on board unit, which is situated on the within windshield, like a vehicle-mounted gadgets and transponders which might ship radio waves and be related with the web ( the account of the motive force).

the fundamental know-how[edit]

The invention of the ETC system want many difficult know-how. The three most essential know-how is:

1. Computerized Automobile Identification: This know-how is to differentiate automobiles and different objects. 
2.  Computerized Automobile Classification : This half is to inform the completely different and acknowledge completely different sorts of automobiles. The tolling payment of truck is unquestionably larger than that of automobiles. And with this know-how, the system will toll completely different quantity based mostly on several types of automobiles.
3. Video Enforcement Methods : This technique can also be essential as nicely. This technique is to search out the automobiles that break the site visitors guidelines. The digicam related with the system will take picture of the unlawful automobiles and report them. [2]

the technical facility[edit]

1. the microwave antenna: The car mounted gadgets will create the radio wave and the microwave antenna will switch to the RSU over the ETC lanes. 
2. the digital tag: this helps to learn the microwave from the gadgets. 

The Market Improvement and the coverage in birthing stage[edit]

The most important drawback confronted is how one can promote the ETC system. This technique is the most recent know-how and it was not identified and adopted by public. So how make make the ETC system common and extensive unfold was an issue.

# the federal government improve the promotion of the ETC system, like introduce it by the web, magazines and even make advertisements for it. And the federal government made many rules concerning the ETC lane and supply good service on it. 
# the federal government improve the variety of ETC lanes, establishing many ETC lanes, making ETC system be a typical sense. 
# the governments introduced many insurance policies to cut back the toll for the ETC customers,making the ETC lane be a greater manner to economize and time.

The Rising Stage of ETC system[edit]

Now the ETC system has come into the growing and rising section in lots of international locations everywhere in the world. 

America[edit]

In America, a very powerful ETC system is E-Zpass system. The system consists of 23 electrical tolling assortment networks in complete, however these networks accounts for 43% the typical move charge per thirty days. [3]

Japan[edit]

In Japan, the federal government has utilized ETC system to all freeway everywhere in the nation. The elective tolling level is greater than 2000 now and the ETC system person has been greater than 40000000.

China[edit]

As much as June 2011, there are extra 22 provinces utilizing ETC system with 1505 hundreds customers. And on 1/5/2013, the federal government determined to use ETC system into all army automobiles. And in keeping with the statistics in 2017, there are 28 province utilizing ETC system and the variety of the customers who had account for ETC has reached 50000 thousand.

Some Drawback and Re-invent Half for ETC[edit]

some drawback[edit]

The privateness is among the drawback. Because the street aspect unit and the sensors with ETC system can report the place of the automobiles. Many dangerous individuals could use the ETC system to get the place of particular individuals’s place and predict his going, which his actually harmful and make a risk to the general public privateness.

answer and re-invent components[edit]

So it’s actually vital to revamp the safety a part of the ETC system to keep away from some info stolen. What’s extra, a system will be written that tolls with out studying the data of the motive force. With this technique , the ETC system will be a lot safer.[4]

Quantitative Half[edit]

variety of customers with time
12 months the variety of customers (10 thousand)
2009 68
2012 510
2013 600
2014 1300
2015 2515
2016 3200
2017 5000

[5][6]

  Passengers S(t) = Ok/[1+exp(-b(t-t0)] Y=LN(Passengers/(Ok-Passengers)) okay =  
12 months carried (hundreds) Predicted Passengers (hundreds) Ok 7000 8000 9000 10000 10500
2009 68 71 -4.624395946 -4.759152784 -4.877887908 -4.984009441 -5.033125579
2012 510 437 -2.543607084 -2.686913351 -2.812233554 -2.923583166 -2.974929146
2013 600 781 -2.367123614 -2.512305624 -2.63905733 -2.751535313 -2.803360381
2014 1300 1357 -1.47810191 -1.639743262 -1.778856064 -1.900958761 -1.95683922
2015 2515 2254 -0.578465692 -0.77974429 -0.947219014 -1.090628214 -1.155291978
2016 3200 3504 -0.171850257 -0.405465108 -0.594707108 -0.753771802 -0.824723538
2017 5000 5000 0.916290732 0.510825624 0.223143551 0 -0.09531018

When okay = 10000, the R sq. equals to 99.1372%, which is the very best. So we select okay= 10000 because the saturation standing stage, so we will additionally estimate b as 0.61722 ( utilizing the equation Y = b X + c and Y = LN (variety of customers/(Ok-number of customers))

as okay = 10000, and t0 = 2017 ( for in 2017 , the person of the ETC is 5000)

on this manner, we will draw the graph for S(t) = Ok/[1+exp(-b(t-t0)]

the variety of customers modifications with time

Reference :[edit]

  1. https://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1078&context=ktc_researchreports
  2. http://www.baike.com/wiki/ETC
  3. http://www.e-zpassiag.com/
  4. Balasch, Josep (October 2010). “Privateness-Preserving Highway Charging”. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
  5. http://www.chyxx.com/business/201706/532553.html
  6. http://t.cj.sina.com.cn/articles/view/6456330623/180d3c97f001004b3z

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